Monday, March 12, 2018

Top 5 Most Extreme Ultralight Backpacking Tips




I heard a story once about a first-time backpacker whose load was so heavy he began ditching his gear in the woods not even a mile in from the trail-head. He threw out his frying pan (but kept the pot), a lawn chair, a pint of Jim Beam (he took a drink first), a 15 million candle-power spotlight, and a field guide to flora and fauna of the Pacific Northwest (hardback of course). He learned the hard way what all of us experienced backpackers already know: carrying a heavy pack sucks. 

Many backpackers (including myself) have endeavored tirelessly to lighten the load, to ease the burden on our weary bones as we burn through the miles. One of the best ways to lighten up is to swap out your backpack, shelter and sleeping system (collectively known as “The Big 3”) for lighter counterparts. The problem is, good gear is expensive, and it seems the less an item weighs, the more it costs. Consider Hyperlight Mountain Gear’s Ultimade 2 pyramid tent. Made of Cuben Fiber, it only weighs 19 ounces, but costs a whopping $715.0... Yikes! 

In lieu of spending your entire savings account replacing the Big 3, there are other, shall we say, more unorthodox methods of getting that pack weight down. In my attempt to go lighter I have run across some strange stuff that people will do to shave ounces, (because as we all know; ounces equal pounds, and pounds equal pain!). I'm not referring to the more commonly known techniques like cutting the handle off your toothbrush or removing the backpack lid. I'm talking radical, cutting edge stuff so extreme that I don’t have the courage to try them out myself. I don't have the time or the space to list them all here, so I've decided to just present the top 5. Remember, I don't endorse these techniques, I'm just passing along the information strictly for informational (entertainment) purposes. 



Go Stoveless – I met a guy last year who thru-hiked The Arizona Trail without a stove. He ate cold dinners, and never enjoyed a morning cup of coffee. I know, it sounds terrible, but on a long-distance hike you could save some serious ounces by leaving your camp kitchen behind. On an overnighter however, you won’t have any reason to get up in the morning.

Don't Treat Water – No filter, no chemicals, no problem… right? This movement is picking up steam within the cult-of-ultralight. The theory goes that with experience you should be able to distinguish safe from unsafe water sources. While leaving your water treatment devices at home can potentially shave a few ounces (2 with the popular Sawyer Mini), is contracting the dreaded Beaver Fever really worth it?

Swap the Knife for a Razor – Apparently some gram weenies out there actually think a razor-blade is not only a perfectly good substitute for a knife (shhh, don’t tell Dave Canterbury), but “the ultimate in ultralight backpacking knives,” as one blogger put it. When I'm in the woods, I like to imagine myself as the second coming of Daniel Boone, so for me, not carrying a knife just doesn’t cut it.

Trim Your Zippers – An old backpacking buddy of mine (who shall remain nameless) told me once that to shave weight from his pack he trimmed all the pull tabs from the zippers on his gear. Now, I've heard of trimming the straps off you pack, or cutting the tags off your clothes, but cutting the pull tabs off your zippers? How much weight will that actually save? Needless to say, he had a tough time getting in and out of his tent.

Don't Bother with Toilet Paper – I found this gem in Mike Clelland's book “Ultralight Backpacking Tips”. The book is loaded with useful information for backpackers trying to go light, but when I came to tip number 116, I did a double take. “Liberate Yourself From Toilet Paper” the tip reads. Instead of TP, he recommends wiping your hind quarters with snow, leaves, pine-cones, sticks, and even rocks. I haven't tried any of these advanced ultralight techniques yet, but I will say that if you leave the toilet paper at home, lightening your load will be more important than ever.



This article is my original work. It was adapted from a piece I did on the now defunct The Mountain Blog called "Do What with a Rock". 

Friday, February 23, 2018

Why Wool: The Extraordinary Properties of Merino Wool

Wool in my collection.

Imagine yourself a primitive man, stone tipped spear in hand, slogging through the rain of prehistoric Britain on the hunt... Fast forward a few thousand years. You're a Roman Legionary, marching north toward the snowcapped Alps to meet the barbarian hordes at the empire's edge... Now it’s January 1915, and you along with the rest of your brave crew of explorers are stranded on a vast ice-flow in the Antarctic, after your ship froze solid and sank... At last its 2017 and you're a backpacker on the PCT, braving the High Sierra despite the earlier-than-expected snowfall, and warnings from other hikers to turn around.

What do all these seemingly unrelated scenarios throughout history have in common?

Wool, the super-fabric spun from the fleece of sheep (and other animals) that has been keeping humans warm in the outdoors since the Stone Age. It is a fabric both ancient and advanced, as no man-made synthetic material yet has been able to duplicate all of wool's extraordinary properties. Indeed, wool has been the fabric of choice for military's, explorers, adventurers, and outdoorsmen since ancient times. 

If you’re out of the loop, you might associate wool with childhood memories of itchy socks or smelly old army blankets. I'm here to tell you that today’s Merino wool garments are the crème-dela-crème of next–to-skin comfort. Merino are a breed of sheep prized for their fine wool, which is considered the softest in the world. But its more than just soft. Merino wool is both water resistant and water absorbing, and will retain its insulating properties when wet. It’s flexible, durable, and stain resistant. It’s antibacterial, anti-microbial, and hypoallergenic. It’s a flame retardant and provides protection from UV rays. I know, it sounds like some super space age material that might be used for the construction of rocket ships, but I assure you, I'm talking about all-natural wool that comes from some extremely stalwart mountain dwelling animals. 

It starts with the impressive, but complex nature of the wool fiber itself. The crimped shape of the fibers creates millions of air pockets when packed together, which trap heat escaping from the body, significantly reducing convection. The fibers are so durable that folding or compressing them will not affect the pockets of air, so the insulating property works equally well whether you're hunkered down in the tent or making a bid for the summit. 

What really makes wool such an amazing fiber is its ability to manage moisture. The naturally hygroscopic fibers absorb 30% percent of their own weight in moisture (10 times more than any synthetic) without feeling damp. So, when you sweat, the moisture from your skin is absorbed into the wool, and pulled to the surface where it evaporates, keeping a dry layer of air next to the skin. Since evaporation of perspiration is how the body naturally cools, the process works to keep you warm in cold conditions, and cool in warm conditions, making wool an ideal fabric for any environment. Studies have shown that just sleeping with a wool blanket can significantly lower the next-to-skin humidity 71% of the time. This incredible quality also allows wool to retain its insulating properties when wet. One study showed that a merino wool garment can absorb 60% of its weight in water before it feels wet.

Bottom of the Grand Canyon in a wool shirt.

Another benefit of wool's water absorbing super power is something called “the heat of sorption”. In this process absorbed moisture in cold conditions release stored energy in the wool fabric that generates heat. One source suggests that just a single kilogram of Merino wool generates heat of sorption “equivalent to the output from an electric blanket over eight hours”.

All this means that wool is not only superior at moisture management, it also excels at thermal regulation. Your core temperature won’t fluctuate as much. You won’t overheat, and you'll sweat less. Another study by the University of Otago in New Zealand concluded that when compared to other fabrics “Merino wool was better at minimizing body regulatory fluctuations which may result from changes in exertion or the environment. Wearing Merino wool fabric appears to lead to generally lesser physiological stress during exercise in both hot and cold conditions.”

Wool fibers also contain a natural wax called lanolin that is excreted by sheep through the skin as a water repellent. Lanolin not only helps you stay dry, it has natural antibacterial and anti-fungus properties as well. The absorption of wool, combined with the benefits of lanolin, and the fact that bacteria has difficulty growing on the scaly wool fiber itself, means that your Merino wool garments will remain odor free even after extended use.

Did I mention wool was a flame retardant? Because so much water can be absorbed into the fabric, wool will not catch fire easily, and is self-extinguishing when it does, which means you won’t burn a hole in your shirt if you get tagged by an ember standing by the fire. Wool can also can protect you from dangerous ultraviolet rays. Studies of 236 clothing textiles from the University of Bochum in Germany found wool to be the only fabric to pass European standards for UV protective clothing.

No doubt wool is an incredible fabric, and the reason humans have been using it so long is obvious. In today's outdoor world, Merino wool clothing remains the ideal choice for next-to-skin layers. In quality Merino wool garments, the comfort and performance are second to none, but beware: Merino wool is easily mixed with other fabrics. An item claiming to be made from Merino wool might only be 50% Merino in actuality. Often times these garments will be mixed with a synthetic and claim to possess the benefits of both. Just read the fine print, shop smart, and trust your name brands. It’s not a coincidence that brands like Smartwool and Icebreaker sit at the top of the Merino wool food-chain. They know their wool!

Perfect conditions for wool active-wear.


Disclaimer - The article is my original work. It first appeared in The Mountain Blog in a 2013 article called "Wool the Super Fabric". Recently when I tried to reference the article I could not locate it online. It in fact appears as if The Mountain Blog is now defunct, as I could not find any reference or mention of it on Mountain Gear's website. I decided to reprint the article here with minor changes as a reference for people searching for this information.  

Friday, January 26, 2018

Todd Lake Winter Backpacking

Off the snowshoe route.
 It's strange, but once upon a time I considered winter the off season. No kidding. Back in the day when I was a Spokane local, the thought of backpacking in the snow never even occurred to me. In Arizona, the winter time was desert time. Down there I backpacked year round. Now that I'm in Bend backpacking year round would require a new set of gear and present a new set of challenges, which I would gladly take in lieu of an off season.

 Appropriately prepared with a winter kit, we set off for a local summer hot spot, Todd Lake. This lake, in summer, is always packed. Its parking lot choked with Subarus and Tacomas. A conveyor belt of hikers circling round and round the shoreline. Camping is not allowed in summer. However in winter, the lake is unreachable by automobile due to the closed mountain road. The hike is only a 3-mile jaunt through groomed snowshoe trails. It seemed like a logical first foray into the winter wilds of central Oregon.

Mount Bachelor
Dutchman Flats
The trail-head at Dutchman Flats was near capacity when we arrived at eight on Saturday morning. An unfortunate consequence of being the only snow park in the region with snow. City of Bend, population 90,000. All vying for a parking spot at Dutchman Flats. We set out under a clear blue sky anticipating the sun's appearance over the mountains. The only detraction the constant drone of snow machines. But not a drone as much as a wail. A rising and falling of machine noise. Constant crooning and cranking of so many machines.... In the woods.

In the woods the motors were less noticeable as we left the flats behind. Or maybe we had become used to them by then. The trail lost, we veered off the path navigating by common sense. The lake is that way. We most go that way. The forest became a pitter-patter orchestra by then. The sun melting the snow off the legion of conifers. A conifer concerto if you will.

What is Nate looking at?
 Todd Lake was ice. A cloud hovered just over the surface giving it a dream like appearance. The kind of dream you wake up and try to remember, but only recall bits and pieces. We walked over the ice along the edge toward Broken Top mountain and a suitable camp spot. We nestled in the trees near some streams flowing into the lake from distant mountain tops. The weather was perfect. The scenery amazing. The kind you see on postcards. Some skiers and hikers looped the lake, but otherwise traffic was minimal. No one bothered us save the buzzing of snowmobiles in the distance, and the reek of gasoline. Our constant companion. A constant annoyance. 

The jays were worse. Swooping down from the tree tops to snatch any edible bit left unattended. I've seen people feeding birds from their hands here before. When I've scolded people for doing so I've always been treated like I'm making a big deal out of something small. But it isn't small. Birds stealing your food. Nibbling on your gear. Unafraid of people. It's a big deal because birds, like all animals, naturally have a fear of man. Birds, like other animals, have evolved to feed themselves. Very efficiently I might add or their line would have ended long ago. Feeding birds and other animals is, simply put, unnatural. Some unnatural things we just shouldn't tolerate. Snowmobiles we can live with, because men love machines (it makes them feel manly). But animals need to feed themselves. By feeding them you are harming both the animal and any humans it will encounter in the future

Snowshoe
Frozen Todd Lake with Bachelor in the background.
 We lit a fire on the snow and spent the evening watching it slowly sink through the layers. The jays had long ago fled to deeper reaches of the forest after I convincingly won a snowball war I waged on them (to be fair, their offense wasn't much, but boy could they juke a snowball). We made a bench where we watched the sunset. We were warm and content. We slept well. Probably one of the best night's sleep I've ever had while backpacking.

grey jay
Grey Jay


writer in the wild
Fire making

Dinner
We awoke to the distant buzzing of snowmobiles at first light. We ignored their obnoxious overtures and began the morning routine. The hike back was much faster because we managed to stay on the trail. I think I'll go back. Not to Todd Lake, but further in, where hopefully I can leave the snow machines and spoiled birds behind. That said, I couldn't have asked for a better time.

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Gear Review: Haeleum - Darian Camouflage Shirt

First light on Porcupine Flat

The Dirt:

Haeleum - Darian | Mossy Oak® Camoflauge Shirt

What is it? High tech hunting/hiking t-shirt

Fabric: 100% DryTru polyester

Technologies:

Sun Protection: UPF 50+

Bug Repellent: Insect Shield® 

Moisture Wicking

Quick Dry

Anti-microbial.





The Darian shirt by Haeleum is a high-tech piece of outdoor apparel with excellent versatility and an affordable price tag. While moisture wicking and quick drying fabrics are virtually the norm in performance t-shirts, adding anti-microbial, sun protection and bug repellent properties make this a truly unique piece.  

Over the last two months I've worn this shirt hiking and hunting all over the great state of Oregon. The Darian is soft and comfortable, and still looks new after a dozen washes. For me, the torso fit is perfect, but the arms are cut too short. I wear a large, and as far as I know my arms aren't unusually long. The Darian's sleeves stop well before my wrist bone, which results in me rolling them up when worn as a standalone piece.

The Darian really shines in the sun. Under a scathing September sun for three days on an early season bow-hunt in Central Oregon, I returned to camp every night dry. Credit the DryTru polyester fabric. I hate carrying sunblock and I hate wearing it even more. A 50+ UPF rating means that I'm protected, even in the hottest conditions.

Late in September I wore the Darian everyday for five days straight. All day long slogging up sloppy  mountainsides and bushwhacking through dense drainages. After some big climbs and big sweats, I never felt cold or wet. The shirt performed flawlessly. It dried quickly and always felt new. Even at the end of the trip. The shirt was wrinkle free and didn't stink. I could have wore it for another five days.

Insect repellent clothing is always in demand, but in late summer and fall in central Oregon, insects are simply not a problem. It was the only property of this shirt that I couldn't test. However, having a disdain for insect repellent sprays nearly equal to that of sunscreen, I have used Insect Shield® clothing in the past during the height of mosquito season and found it highly effective. Combined with the UPF rating, you're looking at a seriously protective shirt.

Overall I am absolutely impressed with this shirt. If you picked up a comparable shirt at any major outdoor retailer you could spend upwards of $100. That's the real beauty of it. The $36.99 price-tag is unbeatable. I would like to see a camouflage pattern more applicable to west coast hunting, but this isn't just a hunting shirt. I would recommend it for any year-round outdoor activity. Especially for those who carry less but expect more from their gear. The Darian shirt can do it all. 

In the high Cascades.




Disclosure of Material Connection: I received the Darian Camouflage Shirt for free from Haeleum in consideration for a gear review.

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Three Sisters Wilderness: Lucky Lake


South Sister
View of Lucky Lake as the trail intersects the lake.
 Lucky Lake is a beautiful mountain lake with great views of South Sister and Broken Top mountains, and it's easy to get to. In fact, the hike is just over a mile, and relatively flat the entire way. I hiked in on a weekday, looking for a quick getaway, and hopefully some fishing. The lake isn't as popular as many Three Sisters Wilderness destinations despite its beauty. Because of this (or maybe the hordes of mosquitoes) I had the lake to myself.

Camp, pre bug net.
 Campsites are concentrated on the south side of the lake. I chose the flattest spot with the best views and pitched my tarp. I was using for the first time a bug net/tarp combination. The net stops at the ground and does not have a floor. I was a bit nervous about its effectiveness pitching it in the midst of clouds of mosquitoes. But it worked great. I slept soundly, and no flying blood-suckers got in.

TFO
Why is my rod on the ground and not in my hand?
 Fishing didn't go so well. Lucky Lake's waters are crystal clear, and I didn't see a single fish of any size either in the water near shore or rising to the surface in deeper parts of the lake. I doubted that any fish were even in the lake despite what I had read online. Regardless, I spent most of the day circling the lake looking for fish and throwing out a fly absent sign of any. It basically became a day-long casting practice session. Lucky Lake isn't a very easy lake to fly fish anyway. Beaches are basically non-existent. In most places, trees grow right to the water's edge. Backcasting is nearly impossible without wading.

 Later that night I heard something big splashing in the water. From the water's edge near my camp I could see a big brown animal frolicking in the water across the lake. I couldn't tell what it was, and I kicked myself for not bringing my binoculars.

A serene morning on the lake.
After a good night's sleep, I awoke to a very quiet, peaceful lake. The water was completely still and the mountains glowed, spotlighted in the rising sun's rays. It's these moments that draw me to the woods. It's these moments that I sit up at night at home in bed thinking about.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Gear Review: NEMO Blaze 2



The Dirt:

NEMO Blaze 2 

What is it? Two person ultralight backpacking tent

Double Walled: Yes

Freestanding: No

Comes with: Tent, fly, stakes and guyline.

Weight: 2 Ibs. (minimum trail weight)

Size: Floor 85"x 50". Height 40". Area 30 square feet.

Materials: Mesh. Floor 15D ripstop sil/PU Nylon. Fly and vestibule 10D sil/PU.



The NEMO Blaze 2 is a spacious, two person, double-walled, ultralight tent that separates itself from the pack with sheer livability. Unlike almost all other two person double-walled tents (that I know of) at 2 pounds or below, the Blaze 2 has two doors and a true dome design, bucking the current trend for tents in this category like the ever popular Big Agnes Fly Creek 2 with the single door teardrop shape. The Blaze 2 is a true ultralight double-doored dome.

Three Sisters
In Three Sisters Wilderness
NEMO accomplished this light weight dome very simply. They eliminated one pole of the classic 2-cross pole design. Yes, the Blaze has only one structural pole that runs from one corner to its opposite, and as such is NOT freestanding. They also added a small center pole that stretches the width of the tent and connects the top of both doors. This allows for vertical side walls and gives the Blaze its unparalleled livability. It also makes for a goofy looking pitch. As you can see from the photo below, the corners absent pole-to-ground contact are raised off the ground pretty significantly. I've  pitched this tent dozens of times and so far have not found a solution, however, I have not seen any drawback created by it. Lastly, the other big change from the run-of-the-mill is the shortened rainfly, which relies on the higher bathtub floor on both ends to keep out rain.

tent
Without the fly. Note the corners,

All these innovations may seem daunting to the traditionalist, but after over a year of regular use I'm impressed. It packs so small. I don't feel guilty taking it on solo trips when the expected weather scares me away from my tarp. When I'm backpacking with my girlfriend, who doesn't do minimalist, the weight is a non-issue. We don't have to split anything up, and she's happy in camp. She's happy with the inside space and she loves having her own door. Let's face it, most 2-person backpacking tents are small, but the ultralight versions are coffins. Some ultralight 2-person tents have no business calling their tent "two person". The NEMO Blaze is not one of those tents. It's made for two, no doubt.

The Blaze can handle the weather too. I've had it in wind on Mt. Lemon, and rain in the Oregon Badlands. It's sturdy and watertight. My only real gripe is the color. I know that sounds weird but hear me out. Bright yellow attracts bees! No joke. It's like they think it's a giant California Poppy or something. If bees are around, they will come when you pitch this tent. Not that big of a deal unless you're allergic, or tenting in Africanized bee territory, like the Sanoron Desert... But then again, if you're in the Sanoron Desert, why are you pitching the fly anyway?

Oregon Badlands
In the Badlands
Overall, I'm super stoked on the Blaze 2. If you want a comfortable, ultralight tent for two, this is your tent. It's got all the conveniences of heavier tents in such a small, light package. I would recommend it particularly if you are actually backpacking with a partner and don't want to trade comfort for weight. It's also perfect for the backpacker who only wants one tent for everything. It's roomy enough for two but light enough for one. It's sturdy and dependable, and the quality is typical NEMO top-notch. The biggest drawback is that you might have to sell a kidney to pay for one.

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Budget Gear Review: Kangaroo Outdoors Rocky Mountain Trekker

Rocky Mountain Trekker in the wilderness


The Dirt:

Kangaroo Outdoors Rocky Mountain Trekker 

What is it? Mummy style backpacking sleeping bag.

Comes with: Sleeping bag, compression stuff sack.

Weight: 3.1 pounds (in stuff sack)

Temp Rating: 32 degrees Fahrenheit

EN Rating: No

Materials: Rip-stop nylon

Insulation: Synthetic
.
The Rocky Mountain Trekker is a budget friendly lightweight mummy bag for 3-season backpacking. I was contacted by someone from Kangaroo Outdoors to write this review, and I have to say that Kangaroo Outdoors, the company, is a bit of a mystery. They don't have a website, and as far as I can tell, the only product they make is this sleeping bag. Regardless, the product description on Amazon assures us that "Kangaroo Outdoors is committed to bringing you only the highest quality outdoor gear. We design and test all of our items in the high Rockies of Colorado." Due to the lack of information on Kangaroo Outdoors and the Rocky Mountain Trekker online, this review will be entirely what I've observed through use.

Pulling it from the box, the first thing I notice is the size. In the provided compression sack, it packs pretty small. Without the compression sack however, it's bulky. In fact, I had trouble stuffing it in a 50 liter backpack on a recent outing. The weight isn't bad either.... for the price. Granted, today's higher end 30-degree down bags barely bust the 1 pound mark, but they are hundreds of dollars. At around 40 bucks, 3 pounds is pretty damn good, and certainly an acceptable weight for most weekend backpackers. On short trips, the weight is barely noticeable. And that's really what the Rocky Mountain Trekker is for, short trips for casual backpackers who don't want to break the bank.



The concern with buying a budget bag is always materials and craftsmanship. Kangaroo Outdoors lists the bag material as rip-stop nylon, but doesn't list a grade. Insulation type is synthetic, but doesn't say what kind. The truth is that the materials make it feel like a forty dollar sleeping bag. But it performs. On multiple backpacking trips when the temperature flirted with freezing, I always stayed warm. Granted, I was wearing baselayers and using a bag liner, but I always do, even with my Marmot and Nemo bags. On breezy, chilly, rainy nights, The Rocky Mountain Trekker continued to surprise me. Even when a chill crept in, I was able to cinch the hood and draft tubes to effectively trap my heat in. This bag does not have a European Norm rating, but the claimed 32 degree comfort rating seems pretty darn accurate.

Rocky Mountain Trekker

Like budget bags I've owned in the past, the biggest problem I had was the zipper. It didn't completely burst open like my last budget bag did, but I fought with it in the night, every night. For starters, snagging was an issue. I found completely zipping up the bag was a challenge and a chore. Even more annoying was the tendency for the zipper to unzip itself during the night. Strangely, pressure on the underside of the zipper would cause it retract. As a result, unless I had the zipper completely up and secured with the Velcro strap, it would retract during the night and I would wake up exposed. 

Overall, The Rocky Mountain Trekker is a solid 3-season bag with an affordable price tag. I would recommend it for new backpackers or anyone who can't afford a name-brand bag. For the experienced or constant backpacker, I would give it a look only if money is a serious concern for you. Otherwise, it would make a good loaner or backup. Durability may be an issue. After all, I don't know anything about materials or manufacturing. I couldn't find any warranty information from Kangaroo Outdoors either. But then again. it's only a 40 dollar bag.

Disclaimer: I was given this sleeping bag for the purposes of a review by Kangaroo Outdoors at no cost to myself. The opinions and conclusions reached are strictly my own.